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mendeley
1754 Mendeley
citeulike
13 CiteULike
Title
Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci
Published in
Nature, July 2014
DOI 10.1038/nature13595
Pubmed ID
Authors

Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Stephan Ripke, Benjamin M. Neale, Aiden Corvin, James T. R. Walters, Kai-How Farh, Peter A. Holmans, Phil Lee, Brendan Bulik-Sullivan, David A. Collier, Hailiang Huang, Tune H. Pers, Ingrid Agartz, Esben Agerbo, Margot Albus, Madeline Alexander, Farooq Amin, Silviu A. Bacanu, Martin Begemann, Richard A. Belliveau Jr, Judit Bene, Sarah E. Bergen, Elizabeth Bevilacqua, Tim B. Bigdeli, Donald W. Black, Richard Bruggeman, Nancy G. Buccola, Randy L. Buckner, William Byerley, Wiepke Cahn, Guiqing Cai, Dominique Campion, Rita M. Cantor, Vaughan J. Carr, Noa Carrera, Stanley V. Catts, Kimberly D. Chambert, Raymond C. K. Chan, Ronald Y. L. Chen, Eric Y. H. Chen, Wei Cheng, Eric F. C. Cheung, Siow Ann Chong, C. Robert Cloninger, David Cohen, Nadine Cohen, Paul Cormican, Nick Craddock, James J. Crowley, David Curtis, Michael Davidson, Kenneth L. Davis, Franziska Degenhardt, Jurgen Del Favero, Ditte Demontis, Dimitris Dikeos, Timothy Dinan, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary Donohoe, Elodie Drapeau, Jubao Duan, Frank Dudbridge, Naser Durmishi, Peter Eichhammer, Johan Eriksson, Valentina Escott-Price, Laurent Essioux, Ayman H. Fanous, Martilias S. Farrell, Josef Frank, Lude Franke, Robert Freedman, Nelson B. Freimer, Marion Friedl, Joseph I. Friedman, Menachem Fromer, Giulio Genovese, Lyudmila Georgieva, Ina Giegling, Paola Giusti-Rodríguez, Stephanie Godard, Jacqueline I. Goldstein, Vera Golimbet, Srihari Gopal, Jacob Gratten, Lieuwe de Haan, Christian Hammer, Marian L. Hamshere, Mark Hansen, Thomas Hansen, Vahram Haroutunian, Annette M. Hartmann, Frans A. Henskens, Stefan Herms, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Per Hoffmann, Andrea Hofman, Mads V. Hollegaard, David M. Hougaard, Masashi Ikeda, Inge Joa, Antonio Julià, René S. Kahn, Luba Kalaydjieva, Sena Karachanak-Yankova, Juha Karjalainen, David Kavanagh, Matthew C. Keller, James L. Kennedy, Andrey Khrunin, Yunjung Kim, Janis Klovins, James A. Knowles, Bettina Konte, Vaidutis Kucinskas, Zita Ausrele Kucinskiene, Hana Kuzelova-Ptackova, Anna K. Kähler, Claudine Laurent, Jimmy Lee Chee Keong, S. Hong Lee, Sophie E. Legge, Bernard Lerer, Miaoxin Li, Tao Li, Kung-Yee Liang, Jeffrey Lieberman, Svetlana Limborska, Carmel M. Loughland, Jan Lubinski, Jouko Lönnqvist, Milan Macek Jr, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Brion S. Maher, Wolfgang Maier, Jacques Mallet, Sara Marsal, Manuel Mattheisen, Morten Mattingsdal, Robert W. McCarley, Colm McDonald, Andrew M. McIntosh, Sandra Meier, Carin J. Meijer, Bela Melegh, Ingrid Melle, Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately, Andres Metspalu, Patricia T. Michie, Lili Milani, Vihra Milanova, Younes Mokrab, Derek W. Morris, Ole Mors, Kieran C. Murphy, Robin M. Murray, Inez Myin-Germeys, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Mari Nelis, Igor Nenadic, Deborah A. Nertney, Gerald Nestadt, Kristin K. Nicodemus, Liene Nikitina-Zake, Laura Nisenbaum, Annelie Nordin, Eadbhard O’Callaghan, Colm O’Dushlaine, F. Anthony O’Neill, Sang-Yun Oh, Ann Olincy, Line Olsen, Jim Van Os, Psychosis Endophenotypes International Consortium, Christos Pantelis, George N. Papadimitriou, Sergi Papiol, Elena Parkhomenko, Michele T. Pato, Tiina Paunio, Milica Pejovic-Milovancevic, Diana O. Perkins, Olli Pietiläinen, Jonathan Pimm, Andrew J. Pocklington, John Powell, Alkes Price, Ann E. Pulver, Shaun M. Purcell, Digby Quested, Henrik B. Rasmussen, Abraham Reichenberg, Mark A. Reimers, Alexander L. Richards, Joshua L. Roffman, Panos Roussos, Douglas M. Ruderfer, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R. Sanders, Ulrich Schall, Christian R. Schubert, Thomas G. Schulze, Sibylle G. Schwab, Edward M. Scolnick, Rodney J. Scott, Larry J. Seidman, Jianxin Shi, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Teimuraz Silagadze, Jeremy M. Silverman, Kang Sim, Petr Slominsky, Jordan W. Smoller, Hon-Cheong So, ChrisC. A. Spencer, Eli A. Stahl, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Elisabeth Stogmann, Richard E. Straub, Eric Strengman, Jana Strohmaier, T. Scott Stroup, Mythily Subramaniam, Jaana Suvisaari, Dragan M. Svrakic, Jin P. Szatkiewicz, Erik Söderman, Srinivas Thirumalai, Draga Toncheva, Sarah Tosato, Juha Veijola, John Waddington, Dermot Walsh, Dai Wang, Qiang Wang, Bradley T. Webb, Mark Weiser, Dieter B. Wildenauer, Nigel M. Williams, Stephanie Williams, Stephanie H. Witt, Aaron R. Wolen, Emily H. M. Wong, Brandon K. Wormley, Hualin Simon Xi, Clement C. Zai, Xuebin Zheng, Fritz Zimprich, Naomi R. Wray, Kari Stefansson, Peter M. Visscher, Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium, Rolf Adolfsson, Ole A. Andreassen, Douglas H. R. Blackwood, Elvira Bramon, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Anders D. Børglum, Sven Cichon, Ariel Darvasi, Enrico Domenici, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Tõnu Esko, Pablo V. Gejman, Michael Gill, Hugh Gurling, Christina M. Hultman, Nakao Iwata, Assen V. Jablensky, Erik G. Jönsson, Kenneth S. Kendler, George Kirov, Jo Knight, Todd Lencz, Douglas F. Levinson, Qingqin S. Li, Jianjun Liu, Anil K. Malhotra, Steven A. McCarroll, Andrew McQuillin, Jennifer L. Moran, Preben B. Mortensen, Bryan J. Mowry, Markus M. Nöthen, Roel A. Ophoff, Michael J. Owen, Aarno Palotie, Carlos N. Pato, Tracey L. Petryshen, Danielle Posthuma, Marcella Rietschel, Brien P. Riley, Dan Rujescu, Pak C. Sham, Pamela Sklar, David St Clair, Daniel R. Weinberger, Jens R. Wendland, Thomas Werge, Mark J. Daly, Patrick F. Sullivan, Michael C. O’Donovan, Benjamin M Neale, James TR Walters, Peter A Holmans, David A Collier, Tune H Pers, Silviu A Bacanu, Richard A Belliveau, Jr, Sarah E Bergen, Tim B Bigdeli, Donald W Black, Nancy G Buccola, Randy L Buckner, Rita M Cantor, Vaughan J Carr, Stanley V Catts, Kimberley D Chambert, Raymond CK Chan, Ronald YL Chan, Eric YH Chen, Eric FC Cheung, C Robert Cloninger, James J Crowley, Kenneth L Davis, Ayman H Fanous, Martilias S Farrell, Nelson B Freimer, Joseph I Friedman, Jacqueline I Goldstein, Marian L Hamshere, Annette M Hartmann, Frans A Henskens, Joel N Hirschhorn, Mads V Hollegaard, David M Hougaard, René S Kahn, Matthew C Keller, James L Kennedy, James A Knowles, Anna K Kähler, Jimmy Lee, S Hong Lee, Sophie E Legge, Carmel M Loughland, Milan Macek, Patrik KE Magnusson, Brion S Maher, Robert W McCarley, Andrew M McIntosh, Carin J Meijer, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Patricia T Michie, Derek W Morris, Kieran C Murphy, Robin M Murray, Deborah A Nertney, Kristin K Nicodemus, F Anthony O’Neill, George N Papadimitriou, Michele T Pato, Diana O Perkins, Andrew J Pocklington, Ann E Pulver, Shaun M Purcell, Henrik B Rasmussen, Mark A Reimers, Alexander L Richards, Joshua L Roffman, Douglas M Ruderfer, Alan R Sanders, Christian R Schubert, Thomas G Schulze, Sibylle G Schwab, Edward M Scolnick, Rodney J Scott, Larry J Seidman, Jeremy M Silverman, Jordan W Smoller, Chris C A Spencer, Eli A Stahl, Richard E Straub, T Scott Stroup, Dragan M Svrakic, Jin P Szatkiewicz, Bradley T Webb, Dieter B Wildenauer, Nigel M Williams, Stephanie H Witt, Aaron R Wolen, Emily HM Wong, Brandon K Wormley, Clement C Zai, Naomi R Wray, Peter M Visscher, Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2, Ole A Andreassen, Douglas HR Blackwood, Joseph D Buxbaum, Anders D Børglum, Pablo V Gejman, Christina M Hultman, Assen V Jablensky, Erik G Jönsson, Kenneth S Kendler, Douglas F Levinson, Qingqin S Li, Anil K Malhotra, Steven A McCarroll, Jennifer L Moran, Preben B Mortensen, Bryan J Mowry, Markus M Nöthen, Roel A Ophoff, Michael J Owen, Carlos N Pato, Tracey L Petryshen, Brien P Riley, Pak C Sham, Daniel R Weinberger, Jens R Wendland, Mark J Daly, Patrick F Sullivan, Michael C O’Donovan, Ripke, S, Neale, BM, Corvin, A, Walters, JTR, Farh, K-H, Holmans, PA, Lee, P, Bulik-Sullivan, B, Collier, DA, Huang, H, Pers, TH, Agartz, I, Agerbo, E, Albus, M, Alexander, M, Amin, F, Bacanu, SA, Begemann, M, Belliveau, RA, Bene, J, Bergen, SE, Bevilacqua, E, Bigdeli, TB, Black, DW, Bruggeman, R, Buccola, NG, Buckner, RL, Byerley, W, Cahn, W, Cai, G, Campion, D, Cantor, RM, Carr, VJ, Carrera, N, Catts, SV, Chambert, KD, Chan, RCK, Chen, RYL, Chen, EYH, Cheng, W, Cheung, EFC, Chong, SA, Cloninger, CR, Cohen, D, Cohen, N, Cormican, P, Craddock, N, Crowley, JJ, Curtis, D, Davidson, M, Davis, KL, Degenhardt, F, Del Favero, J, Demontis, D, Dikeos, D, Dinan, T, Djurovic, S, Donohoe, G, Drapeau, E, Duan, J, Dudbridge, F, Durmishi, N, Eichhammer, P, Eriksson, J, Escott-Price, V, Essioux, L, Fanous, AH, Farrell, MS, Frank, J, Franke, L, Freedman, R, Freimer, NB, Friedl, M, Friedman, JI, Fromer, M, Genovese, G, Georgieva, L, Giegling, I, Giusti-Rodriguez, P, Godard, S, Goldstein, JI, Golimbet, V, Gopal, S, Gratten, J, de Haan, L, Hammer, C, Hamshere, ML, Hansen, M, Hansen, T, Haroutunian, V, Hartmann, AM, Henskens, FA, Herms, S, Hirschhorn, JN, Hoffmann, P, Hofman, A, Hollegaard, MV, Hougaard, DM, Ikeda, M, Joa, I, Julia, A, Kahn, RS, Kalaydjieva, L, Karachanak-Yankova, S, Karjalainen, J, Kavanagh, D, Keller, MC, Kennedy, JL, Khrunin, A, Kim, Y, Klovins, J, Knowles, JA, Konte, B, Kucinskas, V, Kucinskiene, ZA, Kuzelova-Ptackova, H, Kahler, AK, Laurent, C, Keong, JLC, Lee, SH, Legge, SE, Lerer, B, Li, M, Li, T, Liang, K-Y, Lieberman, J, Limborska, S, Loughland, CM, Lubinski, J, Lonnqvist, J, Macek, M, Magnusson, PKE, Maher, BS, Maier, W, Mallet, J, Marsal, S, Mattheisen, M, Mattingsdal, M, McCarley, RW, McDonald, C, McIntosh, AM, Meier, S, Meijer, CJ, Melegh, B, Melle, I, Mesholam-Gately, RI, Metspalu, A, Michie, PT, Milani, L, Milanova, V, Mokrab, Y, Morris, DW, Mors, O, Murphy, KC, Murray, RM, Myin-Germeys, I, Mueller-Myhsok, B, Nelis, M, Nenadic, I, Nertney, DA, Nestadt, G, Nicodemus, KK, Nikitina-Zake, L, Nisenbaum, L, Nordin, A, O'Callaghan, E, O'Dushlaine, C, O'Neill, FA, Oh, S-Y, Olincy, A, Olsen, L, Van Os, J, Pantelis, C, Papadimitriou, GN, Papiol, S, Parkhomenko, E, Pato, MT, Paunio, T, Pejovic-Milovancevic, M, Perkins, DO, Pietilainen, O, Pimm, J, Pocklington, AJ, Powell, J, Price, A, Pulver, AE, Purcell, SM, Quested, D, Rasmussen, HB, Reichenberg, A, Reimers, MA, Richards, AL, Roffman, JL, Roussos, P, Ruderfer, DM, Salomaa, V, Sanders, AR, Schall, U, Schubert, CR, Schulze, TG, Schwab, SG, Scolnick, EM, Scott, RJ, Seidman, LJ, Shi, J, Sigurdsson, E, Silagadze, T, Silverman, JM, Sim, K, Slominsky, P, Smoller, JW, So, H-C, Spencer, CCA, Stahl, EA, Stefansson, H, Steinberg, S, Stogmann, E, Straub, RE, Strengman, E, Strohmaier, J, Stroup, TS, Subramaniam, M, Suvisaari, J, Svrakic, DM, Szatkiewicz, JP, Soderman, E, Thirumalai, S, Toncheva, D, Tosato, S, Veijola, J, Waddington, J, Walsh, D, Wang, D, Wang, Q, Webb, BT, Weiser, M, Wildenauer, DB, Williams, NM, Williams, S, Witt, SH, Wolen, AR, Wong, EHM, Wormley, BK, Xi, HS, Zai, CC, Zheng, X, Zimprich, F, Wray, NR, Stefansson, K, Visscher, PM, Adolfsson, R, Andreassen, OA, Blackwood, DHR, Bramon, E, Buxbaum, JD, Borglum, AD, Cichon, S, Darvasi, A, Domenici, E, Ehrenreich, H, Esko, T, Gejman, PV, Gill, M, Gurling, H, Hultman, CM, Iwata, N, Jablensky, AV, Jonsson, EG, Kendler, KS, Kirov, G, Knight, J, Lencz, T, Levinson, DF, Li, QS, Liu, J, Malhotra, AK, McCarroll, SA, McQuillin, A, Moran, JL, Mortensen, PB, Mowry, BJ, Noethen, MM, Ophoff, RA, Owen, MJ, Palotie, A, Pato, CN, Petryshen, TL, Posthuma, D, Rietschel, M, Riley, BP, Rujescu, D, Sham, PC, Sklar, P, St Clair, D, Weinberger, DR, Wendland, JR, Werge, T, Daly, MJ, Sullivan, PF, O'Donovan, MC

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 335 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 1,754 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 54 3%
United Kingdom 30 2%
Spain 17 <1%
Netherlands 14 <1%
Germany 11 <1%
Switzerland 5 <1%
France 5 <1%
Brazil 5 <1%
Italy 4 <1%
Other 43 2%
Unknown 1566 89%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 438 25%
Researcher 372 21%
Student > Bachelor 256 15%
Student > Master 245 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 91 5%
Other 352 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 672 38%
Medicine and Dentistry 369 21%
Psychology 192 11%
Neuroscience 168 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 143 8%
Other 210 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 954. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 September 2017.
All research outputs
#2,067
of 8,414,430 outputs
Outputs from Nature
#456
of 48,097 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#52
of 181,694 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Nature
#11
of 869 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,414,430 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 48,097 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 75.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 181,694 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 869 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.