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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

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mendeley
425 Mendeley
citeulike
5 CiteULike
Title
GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment
Published in
Science, May 2013
DOI 10.1126/science.1235488
Pubmed ID
Authors

Cornelius A. Rietveld, Sarah E. Medland, Jaime Derringer, Jian Yang, Tõnu Esko, Nicolas W. Martin, Harm-Jan Westra, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Abdel Abdellaoui, Arpana Agrawal, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, John Barnard, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Kelly S. Benke, Lawrence F. Bielak, Jeffrey A. Boatman, Patricia A. Boyle, Gail Davies, Christiaan de Leeuw, Niina Eklund, Daniel S. Evans, Rudolf Ferhmann, Krista Fischer, Christian Gieger, Håkon K. Gjessing, Sara Hägg, Jennifer R. Harris, Caroline Hayward, Christina Holzapfel, Carla A. Ibrahim-Verbaas, Erik Ingelsson, Bo Jacobsson, Peter K. Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika Kaakinen, Stavroula Kanoni, Juha Karjalainen, Ivana Kolcic, Kati Kristiansson, Zoltán Kutalik, Jari Lahti, Sang H. Lee, Peng Lin, Penelope A. Lind, Yongmei Liu, Kurt Lohman, Marisa Loitfelder, George McMahon, Pedro Marques Vidal, Osorio Meirelles, Lili Milani, Ronny Myhre, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Christopher J. Oldmeadow, Katja E. Petrovic, Wouter J. Peyrot, Ozren Polašek, Lydia Quaye, Eva Reinmaa, John P. Rice, Thais S. Rizzi, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Albert V. Smith, Jennifer A. Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Antonio Terracciano, Matthijs J.H.M. van der Loos, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Jürgen Wellmann, Lei Yu, Wei Zhao, Jüri Allik, John R. Attia, Stefania Bandinelli, François Bastardot, Jonathan Beauchamp, David A. Bennett, Klaus Berger, Laura J. Bierut, Dorret I. Boomsma, Ute Bültmann, Harry Campbell, Christopher F. Chabris, Lynn Cherkas, Mina K. Chung, Francesco Cucca, Mariza de Andrade, Philip L. De Jager, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Ian J. Deary, George V. Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Maria Dimitriou, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Martin F. Elderson, Johan G. Eriksson, David M. Evans, Jessica D. Faul, Luigi Ferrucci, Melissa E. Garcia, Henrik Grönberg, Vilmundur Gudnason, Per Hall, Juliette M. Harris, Tamara B. Harris, Nicholas D. Hastie, Andrew C. Heath, Dena G. Hernandez, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Adriaan Hofman, Rolf Holle, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, William G. Iacono, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Matthew Kowgier, Antti Latvala, Lenore J. Launer, Debbie A. Lawlor, Terho Lehtimäki, Jingmei Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C. Liewald, Pamela A. Madden, Patrik K.E. Magnusson, Tomi E. Mäkinen, Marco Masala, Matt McGue, Andres Metspalu, Andreas Mielck, Michael B. Miller, Grant W. Montgomery, Sutapa Mukherjee, Dale R. Nyholt, Ben A. Oostra, Lyle J. Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Brenda Penninx, Markus Perola, Patricia A. Peyser, Martin Preisig, Katri Räikkönen, Olli T. Raitakari, Anu Realo, Susan M. Ring, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Antti-Pekka Sarin, David Schlessinger, Rodney J. Scott, Harold Snieder, Beate St Pourcain, John M. Starr, Jae Hoon Sul, Ida Surakka, Rauli Svento, Alexander Teumer, The LifeLines Cohort Study, Henning Tiemeier, Frank J.A. van Rooij, David R. Van Wagoner, Erkki Vartiainen, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Judith M. Vonk, Gérard Waeber, David R. Weir, H.-Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widen, Gonneke Willemsen, James F. Wilson, Alan F. Wright, Dalton Conley, George Davey-Smith, Lude Franke, Patrick J. F. Groenen, Albert Hofman, Magnus Johannesson, Sharon L.R. Kardia, Robert F. Krueger, David Laibson, Nicholas G. Martin, Michelle N. Meyer, Danielle Posthuma, A. Roy Thurik, Nicholas J. Timpson, André G. Uitterlinden, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Peter M. Visscher, Daniel J. Benjamin, David Cesarini, Philipp D. Koellinger, Rietveld, Cornelius A, Medland, Sarah E, Derringer, Jaime, Yang, Jian, Esko, Tõnu, Martin, Nicolas W, Westra, Harm-Jan, Shakhbazov, Konstantin, Abdellaoui, Abdel, Agrawal, Arpana, Albrecht, Eva, Alizadeh, Behrooz Z, Amin, Najaf, Barnard, John, Baumeister, Sebastian E, Benke, Kelly S, Bielak, Lawrence F, Boatman, Jeffrey A, Boyle, Patricia A, Davies, Gail, de Leeuw, Christiaan, Eklund, Niina, Evans, Daniel S, Ferhmann, Rudolf, Fischer, Krista, Gieger, Christian, Gjessing, Håkon K, Hägg, Sara, Harris, Jennifer R, Hayward, Caroline, Holzapfel, Christina, Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A, Ingelsson, Erik, Jacobsson, Bo, Joshi, Peter K, Jugessur, Astanand, Kaakinen, Marika, Kanoni, Stavroula, Karjalainen, Juha, Kolcic, Ivana, Kristiansson, Kati, Kutalik, Zoltán, Lahti, Jari, Lee, Sang H, Lin, Peng, Lind, Penelope A, Liu, Yongmei, Lohman, Kurt, Loitfelder, Marisa, McMahon, George, Vidal, Pedro Marques, Meirelles, Osorio, Milani, Lili, Myhre, Ronny, Nuotio, Marja-Liisa, Oldmeadow, Christopher J, Petrovic, Katja E, Peyrot, Wouter J, Polasek, Ozren, Quaye, Lydia, Reinmaa, Eva, Rice, John P, Rizzi, Thais S, Schmidt, Helena, Schmidt, Reinhold, Smith, Albert V, Smith, Jennifer A, Tanaka, Toshiko, Terracciano, Antonio, van der Loos, Matthijs J H M, Vitart, Veronique, Völzke, Henry, Wellmann, Jürgen, Yu, Lei, Zhao, Wei, Allik, Jüri, Attia, John R, Bandinelli, Stefania, Bastardot, François, Beauchamp, Jonathan, Bennett, David A, Berger, Klaus, Bierut, Laura J, Boomsma, Dorret I, Bültmann, Ute, Campbell, Harry, Chabris, Christopher F, Cherkas, Lynn, Chung, Mina K, Cucca, Francesco, de Andrade, Mariza, De Jager, Philip L, De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel, Deary, Ian J, Dedoussis, George V, Deloukas, Panos, Dimitriou, Maria, Eiríksdóttir, Guðny, Elderson, Martin F, Eriksson, Johan G, Evans, David M, Faul, Jessica D, Ferrucci, Luigi, Garcia, Melissa E, Grönberg, Henrik, Guðnason, Vilmundur, Hall, Per, Harris, Juliette M, Harris, Tamara B, Hastie, Nicholas D, Heath, Andrew C, Hernandez, Dena G, Hoffmann, Wolfgang, Hofman, Adriaan, Holle, Rolf, Holliday, Elizabeth G, Hottenga, Jouke-Jan, Iacono, William G, Illig, Thomas, Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta, Kähönen, Mika, Kaprio, Jaakko, Kirkpatrick, Robert M, Kowgier, Matthew, Latvala, Antti, Launer, Lenore J, Lawlor, Debbie A, Lehtimäki, Terho, Li, Jingmei, Lichtenstein, Paul, Lichtner, Peter, Liewald, David C, Madden, Pamela A, Magnusson, Patrik K E, Mäkinen, Tomi E, Masala, Marco, McGue, Matt, Metspalu, Andres, Mielck, Andreas, Miller, Michael B, Montgomery, Grant W, Mukherjee, Sutapa, Nyholt, Dale R, Oostra, Ben A, Palmer, Lyle J, Palotie, Aarno, Penninx, Brenda W J H, Perola, Markus, Peyser, Patricia A, Preisig, Martin, Räikkönen, Katri, Raitakari, Olli T, Realo, Anu, Ring, Susan M, Ripatti, Samuli, Rivadeneira, Fernando, Rudan, Igor, Rustichini, Aldo, Salomaa, Veikko, Sarin, Antti-Pekka, Schlessinger, David, Scott, Rodney J, Snieder, Harold, St Pourcain, Beate, Starr, John M, Sul, Jae Hoon, Surakka, Ida, Svento, Rauli, Teumer, Alexander, , , Tiemeier, Henning, van Rooij, Frank J A, Van Wagoner, David R, Vartiainen, Erkki, Viikari, Jorma, Vollenweider, Peter, Vonk, Judith M, Waeber, Gérard, Weir, David R, Wichmann, H-Erich, Widen, Elisabeth, Willemsen, Gonneke, Wilson, James F, Wright, Alan F, Conley, Dalton, Davey-Smith, George, Franke, Lude, Groenen, Patrick J F, Hofman, Albert, Johannesson, Magnus, Kardia, Sharon L R, Krueger, Robert F, Laibson, David, Martin, Nicholas G, Meyer, Michelle N, Posthuma, Danielle, Thurik, A Roy, Timpson, Nicholas J, Uitterlinden, André G, van Duijn, Cornelia M, Visscher, Peter M, Benjamin, Daniel J, Cesarini, David, Koellinger, Philipp D, Matthijs J. H. M. van der Loos, Guðný Eiríksdóttir, Vilmundur Guðnason, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx, Frank J. A. van Rooij, Sharon L. R. Kardia, Frank JAan Rooij, C. A. Rietveld, S. E. Medland, J. Derringer, J. Yang, T. Esko, N. W. Martin, H.-J. Westra, K. Shakhbazov, A. Abdellaoui, A. Agrawal, E. Albrecht, B. Z. Alizadeh, N. Amin, J. Barnard, S. E. Baumeister, K. S. Benke, L. F. Bielak, J. A. Boatman, P. A. Boyle, G. Davies, C. de Leeuw, N. Eklund, D. S. Evans, R. Ferhmann, K. Fischer, C. Gieger, H. K. Gjessing, S. Hagg, J. R. Harris, C. Hayward, C. Holzapfel, C. A. Ibrahim-Verbaas, E. Ingelsson, B. Jacobsson, P. K. Joshi, A. Jugessur, M. Kaakinen, S. Kanoni, J. Karjalainen, I. Kolcic, K. Kristiansson, Z. Kutalik, J. Lahti, S. H. Lee, P. Lin, P. A. Lind, Y. Liu, K. Lohman, M. Loitfelder, G. McMahon, P. M. Vidal, O. Meirelles, L. Milani, R. Myhre, M.-L. Nuotio, C. J. Oldmeadow, K. E. Petrovic, W. J. Peyrot, O. Polasek, L. Quaye, E. Reinmaa, J. P. Rice, T. S. Rizzi, H. Schmidt, R. Schmidt, A. V. Smith, J. A. Smith, T. Tanaka, A. Terracciano, M. J. H. M. van der Loos, V. Vitart, H. Volzke, J. Wellmann, L. Yu, W. Zhao, J. Allik, J. R. Attia, S. Bandinelli, F. Bastardot, J. Beauchamp, D. A. Bennett, K. Berger, L. J. Bierut, D. I. Boomsma, U. Bultmann, H. Campbell, C. F. Chabris, L. Cherkas, M. K. Chung, F. Cucca, M. de Andrade, P. L. De Jager, J.-E. De Neve, I. J. Deary, G. V. Dedoussis, P. Deloukas, M. Dimitriou, G. Eiriksdottir, M. F. Elderson, J. G. Eriksson, D. M. Evans, J. D. Faul, L. Ferrucci, M. E. Garcia, H. Gronberg, V. Gudnason, P. Hall, J. M. Harris, T. B. Harris, N. D. Hastie, A. C. Heath, D. G. Hernandez, W. Hoffmann, A. Hofman, R. Holle, E. G. Holliday, J.-J. Hottenga, W. G. Iacono, T. Illig, M.-R. Jarvelin, M. Kahonen, J. Kaprio, R. M. Kirkpatrick, M. Kowgier, A. Latvala, L. J. Launer, D. A. Lawlor, T. Lehtimaki, J. Li, P. Lichtenstein, P. Lichtner, D. C. Liewald, P. A. Madden, P. K. E. Magnusson, T. E. Makinen, M. Masala, M. McGue, A. Metspalu, A. Mielck, M. B. Miller, G. W. Montgomery, S. Mukherjee, D. R. Nyholt, B. A. Oostra, L. J. Palmer, A. Palotie, B. Penninx, M. Perola, P. A. Peyser, M. Preisig, K. Raikkonen, O. T. Raitakari, A. Realo, S. M. Ring, S. Ripatti, F. Rivadeneira, I. Rudan, A. Rustichini, V. Salomaa, A.-P. Sarin, D. Schlessinger, R. J. Scott, H. Snieder, B. St Pourcain, J. M. Starr, J. H. Sul, I. Surakka, R. Svento, A. Teumer, H. Tiemeier, F. J. A. van Rooij, D. R. Van Wagoner, E. Vartiainen, J. Viikari, P. Vollenweider, J. M. Vonk, G. Waeber, D. R. Weir, H.- E. Wichmann, E. Widen, G. Willemsen, J. F. Wilson, A. F. Wright, D. Conley, G. Davey-Smith, L. Franke, P. J. F. Groenen, M. Johannesson, S. L. R. Kardia, R. F. Krueger, D. Laibson, N. G. Martin, M. N. Meyer, D. Posthuma, A. R. Thurik, N. J. Timpson, A. G. Uitterlinden, C. M. van Duijn, P. M. Visscher, D. J. Benjamin, D. Cesarini, P. D. Koellinger, V. Guthnason, B. W. J. H. Penninx

Abstract

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 345 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 425 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 17 4%
Netherlands 5 1%
Canada 5 1%
United Kingdom 4 <1%
Finland 3 <1%
Japan 3 <1%
Germany 2 <1%
Austria 2 <1%
France 1 <1%
Other 9 2%
Unknown 374 88%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 114 27%
Researcher 93 22%
Professor 39 9%
Student > Master 38 9%
Professor > Associate Professor 32 8%
Other 109 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 144 34%
Medicine and Dentistry 52 12%
Psychology 51 12%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 41 10%
Unspecified 38 9%
Other 99 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 729. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 June 2018.
All research outputs
#5,256
of 11,406,091 outputs
Outputs from Science
#280
of 52,120 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#43
of 133,632 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Science
#5
of 715 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,406,091 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 52,120 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 33.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 133,632 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 715 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.